- Expansion of book publishing, magazines, newspapers
- Industrial Revolution
- Abolitionist movement
- 1800s, 1810s, 1820s, 1830s, 1840s, 1850s
- Short stories, novels, poetry
- Imagination over reason; intuition over fact
- The law of the universe was not static but dynamic with change, growth, and development
- Focused on the fantastic of human experience
- Writing that can be interpreted two ways: surface and in depth
- Focus on inner feelings
Transcendentalism stressed individualism, intuition, nature, self-reliance.
Anti-Transcendentalism was a literary movement that essentially consisted of only Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville.
They focused on the limitations and potential destructiveness of the human spirit rather than on the possibilities.
Short stories, novels, and poetry
- Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)
Wrote about sin and guilt; consequences of pride, selfishness
The Scarlet Letter
Short stories ("The Minister's Black Veil")